On the "negative" side a number of sites mentioned in the Exodus did NOT exist in the LBA to be destroyed in Iron IA, Ai (et-Tell), Arad, Heshbon, Dibon and Beth Horon.
Does this mean that there was "no" Exodus because not all sites existed in the Late Bronze/Iron IA interval ?
To attain this initial population so soon after arrival, boatload after boatload of Philistines, along with their families, livestock and belongings, must have arrived in southern Canaan during stage 1. Another objection is that the Iron IA pottery resembles Canaanite forms, NOT Egyptian.
By the beginning of stage 2, natural growth more than doubled the Philistine population, and fueled their expansion in all directions...until by the later half of the 11th century BCE, they had become a menace even to the Israelites in the highlands to the east." (p. In addition the claim has been advanced that the Egyptians make no mention in their records of an Exodus.
However, except for the Egyptian forts along the northern coast, not a single campsite or sign of occupation from the time of Ramesses II and his immediate predecessors has ever been identified in Sinai." (p. Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberm"As for no clues in Sinai, it is silly to expect to find traces of everybody who ever passed through the various routes in that peninsula. I might add to Kitchen's above rebuttal, which makes mention "only" of a Late Bronze Age presence at Serabit el Khadim, that Ramesside cartouches of the 19th Dynasty are attested at the same site.The state of preservation of remains is very uneven. So, Finkelstein and Silberman are in ERROR in claiming that there is NO evidence of a Ramesside presence in the southern Sinai.For the Late Bronze Age, Finkelstein and Silbermann have the Egyptian mining site at Serabit el-Khadim. One of the "immediate predecessors" of Ramesses II was Pharaoh Horemhab, who designated Ramesses I as his successor.Khatana-Qantir and Tell el-Dab'a were both part of a huge city complex which was served by an excellent harbor... According to Uphill Pi-Ramesses is a site possessing approximately 1500 ha (hectares), other sites noted are Heliopolis (Egyptian Inu/Anu, biblical On, cf. Noting that he dated the Philistine presence in Canaan to ca.For most modern archaeologists, the identification of Avaris with Khatana-Qantir/Tell el-Dab'a is now considered certain." (p. Ge ) 2300 ha; Thebes 740 ha; Memphis 460 ha; Elephantine (near Aswan) 4.5 ha (cf. 1176 BCE in the reign of Ramesses III, this suggests _to me_ that Hazor must have fallen AFTER 1176 BCE (for the details please "During the Hyksos period the settlement attained a size of 250 hectares (=2.5 ), three times the size of Hazor, the largest contemporary site in Palestine... Manfred Bietak."Archaeological surveys of Philista have revealed few Iron Age settlements in the Countryside.